美国政府反对金融交易税，可能因为受到大财团的游说，或者认为不可行。很奇怪德法右翼政府原先都是反对加税的现在愿意在增加大资本家税务的金融交 易税上加税，是为了寻求税源弥补缩减财政支出也不足以解决的税务困境呢，还是仅仅如表面上所说的理由，为了阻碍金融市场的短期大笔投机？问题是拟 议中的税率低到也看起来不会起什么阻碍投机作用的程度，因此有很多人担心反而可能使欧元区的投资撤离到未征税的英美金融市场，正如瑞典试行金融交 易税的失败结果。
LEMONDE.FR | 06.01.12 | 5:04 p.m. • Updated 09.01.12 | 5:02 p.m.
A strange fate that this tax, designed by a liberal economist in the United States in 1972, popularized by anti-globalization Attac (Association for Taxation of Financial Transactions and citizen action), and supported by the European Socialists before going to see today defended by Liberal governments such as Nicolas Sarkozy andAngela Merkel .
1972: Originally, an American liberal economist, James Tobin
In August 1971, U.S. President Richard Nixon decided to abolish the dollar's convertibility into gold, ending the de facto international monetary system established in 1944 by the Bretton Woods agreement, which guaranteed a stable exchange rate. It is in this context that in 1972, the U.S. economics professor James Tobin speaks during a conference at Princeton University, the idea of a tax rate very low (between 0, 05% and 0.2%) on financial transactions that would "throw some sand in the wheels of international finance " , that is to say, limiting the volatility of financial markets by constraining the development of the short-term speculation. He received the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1981.
1984: The Swedish experience
In 1984, Sweden introduced a tax of 0.5% on financial transactions in its market share. This rate was doubled in 1986 and extended the tax to the bond market. But experience is a failure: the income from the tax are disappointing as causes of capital flight out of the country to London exchanges and New York or offshore investments. The experiment was abandoned in 1990. Many economists cite the example still as evidence that the introduction of such a tax by one country is doomed to failure.
1992 - 1995: Return of the tax after the European and Mexican currency crises
The tax rebate is up to date in the mid-1990s, after the first crisis of the European Monetary System in 1992 and the Mexican peso crisis in 1994. That year, the socialist president Francois Mitterand revived the idea in Social Summit in Copenhagen, and is brought up again a year later on the sidelines of the G7 in Halifax. The introduction of a tax on financial transactions contained in the program then the Socialist candidate Lionel Jospin in the presidential election of 1995, won by Jacques Chirac (RPR).
1997 - 2001: James Tobin Attac against
In December 1997, in an editorial in Le Monde diplomatique entitled "Disarm the markets" , the journalist Ignacio Ramonet believes that the taxation of financial income is a "minimum requirement for democracy" . He said the application of such a tax "would ruin the liberal creed of all those who continue to discuss the lack of alternatives to the current system. " This is a tax of "solidarity" . Even modest (0.1%), it would bring huge revenues to " eradicate extreme poverty by the turn of the century " .
He concluded by suggesting the creation "globally" to "non-governmental organization Action for a Tobin tax help Citizens (ATTAC)." Thus the movement Attac (now the Association for Taxation of Financial Transactions and citizen action) was founded in 1998, becoming the backbone of the implementation of the tax and a new global movement, "anti-globalization".
In July 2001, the G8 summit held in Genoa, Italy. The anti-globalization organizing a top-cons, and important events take place in the streets of the city. Some rallies degenerate into riots, severely repressed by the police. A young demonstrator was killed.
The event grows James Tobin, the liberal economist who invented the tax, out of his reserve. In an interview with German newspaper Der Spiegel , which he criticizes the anti-globalization "divert [his] name " . "I did not the least in common with these 'thugs tile " anti-globalization, says the economist, who believes that the positions of movements like Attac "leave a good feeling, but are ill-conceived" . For Tobin, many anti-globalization activists are primarily designed to fight against the expansion of free markets, while he says the contrary, "a supporter of free trade" .
1997-2001: The hesitation waltz of Lionel Jospin
In 1997, after the dissolution of the National Assembly, the Left won the legislative elections in France, Lionel Jospin became prime minister. But he defended the tax two years before going into oblivion. Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the then Minister of Finance, is not favorable, it is particularly be included in a budget document Bercy criticizing an official study very strongly.
During a televised debate in 1999, which opposes including the first secretary of the PS then François Hollande , Nicolas Sarkozy criticizes a tax on financial transactions which he considers an "absurdity." "If we do it in France, we will stillpay tens of thousands more unemployed " .
It is believed the idea of such a tax buried for good. But within months of a new presidential election, Lionel Jospin the jurisdiction of the cap in August 2001 during an interview on TF1. He said he was "positive that France proposes that the European Union take the initiative [of a tax on financial transactions] internationally. " A few days later, his German counterpart of the SPD, Gerhard Schröder , called for open European debate on the control of speculative financial flows.
On November 19, 2001, in France, the National Assembly adopts the principle of taxation of transactions on the currency market, but raises the condition that it will only take effect if an identical measure is adopted by other countries of the European Union. The tax falls into oblivion with the victory of Jacques Chirac (UMP) as President of the Republic in 2002.
2006: The charge travels to the right
But the right will gradually take hold of the subject. In 2006, the Head of State made a step forward: it manages to establish a permanent tax on airline tickets, adopted by 27 countries (it has since made nearly 180 million with additional French development). In 2007, the second step: the Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchnerraise the principle of a tax on financial transactions and calls for a levy "painless" of 0.005%, which would yield 30 billion euros per year.
2008: A new financial crisis , global this time, rebuilt the maps
In September 2008, the collapse of U.S. bank Lehman Brothers marks the beginning of the crisis called "subprime" and relaunch the critical international finance and speculation. In August 2009, the tilting of Adair Turner , head of UK Financial Services Authority (FSA), a sort of policeman of the City, and former UK boss of bosses, in favor of the tax, a turning point.
In the middle of financial turmoil, then the tax arises at the G20 finance in November 2009, when the British Labour Prime Minister of the time, Gordon Brown, it says to turn positive, to protect against further loss records of the banks. The G20 finance application to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to speed up the reflection on the feasibility of such a tax. But Dominique Strauss-Kahn, who has since been leading the international organization, continues to be hostile to a tax he considerssimplistic and very difficult to put into practice. The United States and financial markets remain very opposite. The fund decides to end a tax on financial firms only, which has not been established.
2011: Towards a tax limited to the euro area
The extension of the Greek crisis in the whole euro area expands the circle of supporters. In June 2011, the European Commission proposes to turn the introduction of a tax on financial transactions from 2014 to fuel the future budget of the European Union.
In August, Nicolas Sarkozy and German Chancellor Angela Merkel announced a future Franco-German initiative on the subject. Their statement causes a sudden drop in the share of NYSE-Euronext, which operates the stock exchanges of NewYork, Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam, Lisbon and Porto. The City, the NYSE, and the President of the European Central Bank (ECB) restate their opposition to such a tax in Europe, fear, following the Swedish example, capital flight at a time when Europe is facing a new period of financial turmoil.
In November, Nicolas Sarkozy is the herald of the Tobin tax on G20 in Cannes. "A tax on financial transactions is technically possible, financially necessary and morally essential" , provides the head of state. Including the tax receives the support of Argentina and South Africa, but a large number of countries remains strongly opposed, including the United States and China. The global initiative seemed at an impasse, the United Kingdom - who cares for the financial center of London - and Sweden - scalded by his experience in 1984 - did not want it, the idea emerges a tax limited to the euro area.
Mid-December, the Minister of Economy, Baroin , announces a "contribution"Franco-German January 23, 2012 for a fee "operational" in 2013. December 31, Nicolas Sarkozy calls for rapid adoption and suggests the end of the quinquennium.Friday, January 5, Henri Guaino promises a French decision on the tax before the end of the month.Aline Leclerc
Tax on financial transactions
THE FACTS of the Tobin tax to tax trading
The strange fate of the Tobin tax, anti-globalization of the Liberals
LEMONDE.FR | 06.01.12 | 5:04 p.m. • Updated 09.01.12 | 5:02 p.m.
Discover the reactions of subscribers Monde.fr after reading this information.
Read or reread this information
Tobin was against the Tobin tax version francaise: http://www.liberation.fr/tribune/0101385796-james-tobin-contre-la-taxe-tobin
Living in London, I sincerely hope that France will implement this tax! : D
"This tax, designed by a liberal economist." J. Tobin was not Keynesian liberal (in the economic sense). The Tobin tax is only meaningful if many countries as possible (if not all) adopt it. While financial capital is highly mobile, so there will be a migration of capital to countries that have not adopted the tax. It will even be rational for some countries not to adopt the tax in order to attract capital fleeing it. Flick election of Sarkozy. The buzz ...
01/09/12 - 11:44
It is not NS that returns his jacket, the wind changes! The good word of Edgar Faure illustrates the behavior of NS In addition, taxing only transactions is insufficient: it is also taxing orders issued but withdrawn in minutes (even seconds) to move following the course of a as 1 / 1000 If this lowers the price, you buy, otherwise we sell. You win almost all the time. Traders live, among other things with it.
The mask off!
08/01/12 - 24:16
Edge mobility extraordinary funds that are causing the current crisis ... they will be well worth making fun of a tax measured as small scale of their profits ... The question is only to reach give inertia "stage time" to such funds or honoring the holders or their host countries ... This inertia is necessary for the industrial preparation ... so to growth and employment ... the rest is just "puff of smoke".
07/01/12 - 3:17 p.m.
This article ignores the pioneering role in terms of the history of ideas, the association "Nantes is a feast," which launched in 1997 to the Paris Stock Exchange on "Eve's annual May 1," first protest demonstration in the world for the Tobin Tax, a year before the creation of ATTAC. This not to mention the occultation of the "Call of Resistance to the younger generation" of March 8, 2004, and the Call for Ten new rights "Decapolis Dekapol, Decapolis."
07/01/12 - 13:45
Sarkozy is ready to deny. He now argues in favor of a tax which he questioned the relevance a few years ago. It will not run out of arguments to explain this new flip-flop. It probably explains the context has changed.
07/01/12 - 11:45
The moral and financial relations based in part on accounting requirements for displaying flow of investment securities and foreign currencies in the annual accounts of companies. Alas, it is fashionable to treat with contempt accounting. It's not tomorrow that political parties and journalists ask that you make a significant place in the period of compulsory education to legal accounting rules.
07/01/12 - 11:26
The display in the financial statements (income statement or annex) flows of investment securities and foreign currencies may have resulted in the reduction of these flows and the tax base. But it could help to a certain moralization of financial transactions which remain essential to the economy when they are not purely speculative. Expect that political parties and economic journalists seize the real debate.
07/01/12 - 11:25
Tobin make a liberal is a bit faster since he claimed his membership in the "Keynesian synthesis" which, indeed, sought to merge Keynesian analysis of unemployment and neoclassical analysis of growth.
09/01/12 - 5:56
But Keynes was a liberal, right? Not in the Franco-definition post-Marxist, of course, but accepted that the rest of the civilized world.
07/01/12 - 11:05
Let's be serious. The Tobin tax (or a tax on financial transactions) is an indirect tax, so a fiscal resource. The amount should be earmarked for assistance to countries development.The respects French accounting Accounting Directives of the European Union concerning the right of certain sociétés.Les it does not flow only in the annual accounts are those on investment securities and currencies étrangères.Pourquoi to you?
"The amount should be earmarked for assistance to developing countries" And who will decide the amount? Destination? and on what criteria?
07/01/12 - 10:54
The machine promises Sarko turns it up! Already that it takes the rescue of Grandrange, he had made at the beginning of his term ... (By the way, Sarko has he not already moralized capitalism since the 2008 crisis as it announced?)
07/01/12 - 10:43
What do we hear, understand by "financial transaction"? thank you!
07/01/12 - 9:33
Pathetic. Sarkozy clings to all branches to stay afloat. You can almost believe that he is president for a month. Outside, the P'tit Bonhomme ...
07/01/12 - 0:14
Why do you speak of Tobin tax, we were in France for a century a tax on financial transactions, it was called stamp duty. This tax was perhaps not quite universal, but it was very close to that proposed by Tobin for America. This tax was abolished by the Socialists in the early 1990s.
07/01/12 - 8:49
It's over France except to return to 38 million. Thank you, but not require the use of nostalgic for the good old days, with their train of doom harbinger of exclusion or even massacres.
07/01/12 - 0:10
Tobin or not to Be Elected, Seems To Be Sarkozy's question!
06/01/12 - 10:05 p.m.
Especially the traceability of financial flows that is important, especially since this regulation accompanies and is funded by tax revenues. How could anyone be allowed to tax havens so much that they take as some multi-national states hostage? There is a risk of a more or less occult powered by a parallel or underground economy where cash reign, but also the assembly of multi-national accounting ..
06/01/12 - 6:36 p.m.
Since the time we talked about I think it's like the loc ness monster I doubt that financiers of all stripes will not let it settle political ca gives the impression of being adventurous, but it 's go no further even if we're going to talk a lot!
06/01/12 - 6:26 p.m.
The main concern is that the Tobin tax will not solve what is the cause of the crisis today: the lack of opportunities for investors and the crisis of overproduction that results.
06/01/12 - 8:07 p.m.
curious we are asked to tighten our belts in a world that suffers from overproduction ...
06/01/12 - 5:48 p.m.
And in 1999, Jean-Luc Melenchon was the first senator to defend an amendment proposing the tax on financial transactions. But of course, The World is unable to inform the reader of this vision!
07/01/12 - 5:42 p.m.
It is easier to list things Mélenchon has not provided that it has adopted is immense. As God he has a clergy that is day to day account of his miracles.
06/01/12 - 17:40
Tobin Yes, great idea but mostly French, do not be fooled ... Recovery ... 2012 election, vote and think long-term
07/01/12 - 0:03
06/01/12 - 5:31 p.m.
Why wait for January 2012 that the French press takes properly the subject while the European Commission has placed on the Council table a proposal for a tax on financial transactions in September 2011?
06/01/12 - 5:28 p.m.
European markets are a must. Dark pools that are prohibited and this tax, the order of 0.1% is in place. It is virtually nothing in volume (one thousandth of the transaction) but would reduce speculation by making it less profitable, especially in the air microtrading.